Combined heat and power is a highly efficient energy process that produces significantly fewer combustion products per unit of energy output than traditional discrete heat and power generation systems. This, in turn, has a beneficial effect on air pollution and its consequences. Although installing a CHP system usually increases the fuel consumption on-site, the use of cleaner combustion plant often results in a reduction in some of the pollutants produced. By generating electricity on-site, CHP also displaces the larger amounts of fuel otherwise used at central power generating stations, significantly reducing their emissions of pollutants. Included are sections dealing in depth with fossil fuels combustion, conventional energy supply emissions, CHP emissions, CHP emissions reductions, operations & maintenance requirements.
Power generation in general utilises a variety of combustion technologies. For the combustion of solid fuels, pulverised combustion, fluidised bed combustion as well as grate firing are all considered to be BAT under the conditions described in this document. For liquid and gaseous fuels, boilers, engines and gas turbines are BAT under the conditions described in this document. The choice of system employed at a facility is based on economic, technical, environmental and local considerations, such as the availability of fuels, the operational requirements, market conditions, network requirements. Electricity is mainly generated by producing steam in a boiler fired by the selected fuel and the steam is used to power a turbine which drives a generator to produce electricity. The steam cycle has an inherent efficiency limited by the need to condense the steam after the turbine.
Combustion technology is indispensable in the steel, glass, chemical, and cement industries, as well as in refuse incineration and paper manufacture. The requirements here in terms of plant safety and availability are not only especially high, they are also constantly changing. To offer the best possible support to mechanical engineers and plant operators in this area, Wieland Electric now provides complete system solutions optimally tailored to combustion technology – from connection technology to safety-related, interface, and control cabinet components, and through to advice, support, and training.
Whether thermoprocessing plants, steam boilers, or thermal oil heaters – the safe operation of combustion plants calls for practical solutions at every stage in the life of the machine or process. Wieland Electric is responding to this need with the establishment of the new “combustion technology” segment within its mechanical engineering range, offering complete safety solutions, efficient control cabinet components, and customized concepts here to suit any combustion application.
As a global technical contact and industry manager with many years of experience, Markus Kick is responsible for the ‘functional safety of automated heating systems’. Solution-oriented and future-proof engineering is his main focus: “From the terminal to the fail-safe heating controller to the World Wide Web with IoT and VPN, we address a huge variety of process technology requirements. With our decentralized solutions we are able to smartly connect the control level to the field level.”
Concrete applications include reliable temperature and ratio monitoring, pressure measurements, and also flow and quantity measurements. Complex processes can be implemented simply and compliantly, especially by using the new generation of analog modules on the samos PRO safety controller from Wieland. For this purpose, the controller and its software have been enhanced to include a special block library for combustion plants. This now means that digital as well as analog signals can be analysed directly using TÜV-tested function blocks.
In addition, Wieland is on hand to provide plant operators and mechanical engineers with application support and advice as early as during the planning phase for all aspects, from the process sensor to the controller and through to the quick-acting shut-off valve. Seminars and training courses specifically designed for thermoprocessing plants complete the range of combustion technology solutions within the safety service.
Defra has produced a series of guidance documents including Core Guidance which describes the general permitting and compliance requirements and guidance on the European directives which are implemented through the Environmental Permitting Regulations. The documents also include guidance on the Large Combustion Plant Directive (Article 6 covers CHP permitting requirements).
In addition to Defra's guidance, the EA have produced guidance on the parts of the regulations that they are responsible for (Part A(1) activities and Waste Operations). Their guidance includes Technical Guidance Notes, risk assessment tool, application form and form guidance.
These documents are intended as guidance to the regulators and to plant operators in general, and provide a basis for the conditions and environmental performance that will be required under a permit from the EA/SEPA.
Part B Processes / Installations
Combustion plant with a thermal input capacity of 20-50MW will generally be regulated by Local Authorities in England and Wales (under LAPPC) and by SEPA in Scotland.